The following historical summary is attributed to Sigma Mu Sigma with additional anecdotal elaboration provided by alumni members of the Sigma Mu Sigma/Elon chapter.

Square and Compass
Square and Compass was incorporated at Lexington, Virginia in 1917 by members of the Washington and Lee Masonic Club which had been organized in 1897. Since many of its founders were also members of Greek-letter fraternities, they were unable to affiliate with any other Masonic fraternity. Accordingly, they planned an intercollegiate fraternity which would accept members of Greek-letter societies and would use the Masonic method of petitioning rather than the Greek-letter method of bidding. Before the end of that college year, the United States had entered the First World War and all of the founders joined wither the Army or the Navy. Those who returned to Washington and Lee after the war reactivated the chapter in the fall of 1919 and began an expansion program in 1920. During the next eleven years, fifty-seven collegiate chapters were chartered and some five thousand members initiated.

In 1928, the fraternity reached its peak. In subsequent years, due to the effect of the Great Depression, the fraternity grew consistently smaller. By the end of the Second World War, the fraternity existed only on paper. Some of the national officers (particularly Dr. William Moseley Brown) kept the charter and corporation papers of the fraternity in force. In the late 1940's, several of the members of the fraternity expressed a desire that the organization be revived on local college campuses. They, realizing that most college students were not old enough to be Master Masons, removed the Master Mason only clause and allowed chapters to open their membership to non-Masons. Soon, due to the efforts of Dr. Brown, four chapters were organized. These four chapters held a national meeting in Richmond, Virginia on December 30, 1950. The following year, a national meeting was held in Cincinnati, Ohio at which time the name Sigma Alpha Chi and the Declaration of Principles were approved.

Sigma Mu Sigma - Square and Compass
In 1951 at the national convention of Sigma Alpha Chi, a discussion between representatives from Sigma Mu Sigma and Sigma Alpha Chi regarding the possibility of a merger of the two fraternities took place. At that time, it was found that the ideals and objectives of Sigma Mu Sigma and Sigma Alpha Chi were almost identical. After a year of discussion and planning, a meeting was held at Angola, Indiana on August 3, 1952 for the purpose of merging the two organizations. It was decided that the merged group should be called Sigma Mu Sigma - Square and Compass. Brothers were present at the meeting from all of the active chapters of both fraternities. Included were representatives from: 

Alpha Chapter (Tri-State College)
Kappa Chapter (Medical College of Virginia)
Lambda Chapter (Elon College)
Mu Chapter (Chase College) 

Kappa Sigma Fraternity
During 1972-73, Lambda Chapter of Sigma Mu Sigma actively sought an affiliation with one of two large, established national fraternities: Kappa Sigma Fraternity and Kappa Alpha Order. Ultimately, Kappa Sigma was selected, and in 1973, Lambda Chapter of Sigma Mu Sigma formally became Lambda-Lambda Chapter of Kappa Sigma Fraternity.

Today, 'Sigma Mu Sigma Fraternity' continues to exists. In fact, the organization's national web site references the chapter that was the forerunner of today's Kappa Sigma at Elon University.

At one time, the following link directed to the Sigma Mu Sigma organization's web site and showed information for the former Lambda Chapter of Sigma Mu Sigma. (Unfortunately, the site's URL only works intermittently now.)